Instatement of Stuttering in Normally Fluent Individuals through Operant Procedures

Science  16 Oct 1959:
Vol. 130, Issue 3381, pp. 979-981
DOI: 10.1126/science.130.3381.979-a


Normally fluent subjects were required to read from printed pages, and a recording was made of nonfluencies until a stable rate was established. A persistent shock was then introduced. Its cessation for a limited period was made contingent upon nonfluency. Chronic stuttering was instated and eliminated as a function of the change in stimulus.