Epinephrine, Norepinephrine, and Acetylcholine as Conditioned Stimuli for Avoidance Behavior

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Science  01 Apr 1960:
Vol. 131, Issue 3405, pp. 990-991
DOI: 10.1126/science.131.3405.990


Conditioned leg-flexion responses in dogs were developed with electric shock as an unconditioned stimulus and intestinal stimulation or the effects of injections of various drugs as conditioned stimuli. It is concluded that physiological effects can play a role in the development and maintenance of conditioned avoidance behavior.