Nondiscriminated Avoidance Behavior in Human Subjects

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Science  03 Mar 1961:
Vol. 133, Issue 3453, pp. 641-642
DOI: 10.1126/science.133.3453.641


College students were required to learn a plunger-pulling response to postpone the occurrence of a shock or to avoid the loss of a monetary reward. Marked individual differences in the response patterns appeared in the first hour and persisted through 20 hours of testing. These differences overshadowed those produced by moderate alterations in the schedule or value of the aversive event.