Critical Period in the Social Development of Dogs

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Science  31 Mar 1961:
Vol. 133, Issue 3457, pp. 1016-1017
DOI: 10.1126/science.133.3457.1016


Litters of puppies were isolated, with the bitch, in fenced acre fields from 2 to 14 weeks of age. They were removed indoors at different ages, played with for a week, and returned to the field. The pups manifested an increasing tendency to withdraw from human beings after 5 weeks of age and unless socialization occurred before 14 weeks of age, withdrawal reactions from humans became so intense that normal relationships could not thereafter be established