Positive and Negative Reinforcement from Intracranial Stimulation of a Teleost

Science  18 May 1962:
Vol. 136, Issue 3516, pp. 648-649
DOI: 10.1126/science.136.3516.648


Tests in which an animal receives or avoids direct electrical stimulation of its brain according to its position in the tank as well as tests of free operant behavior demonstrate the existence of both positively and negatively rewarding areas in the brain of the goldfish.