Freezing and Lyophilizing Alters the Structure of Bentonite Gels

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Science  29 Jun 1962:
Vol. 136, Issue 3522, pp. 1116-1118
DOI: 10.1126/science.136.3522.1116-a


During quick-freezing with liquid nitrogen all but two molecular layers of water moved from between the crystals of saturated bentonite gels. The water molecules appear to have migrated to ice crystals forming near the clay crystals. Lyophilizing removed the ice crystals and further reduced interlayer water. Both quick-freezing and lyophilizing altered the original gel structure.