Carbon-Isotope Composition and the Origin of Calcareous Coal Balls

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Science  23 Nov 1962:
Vol. 138, Issue 3543, pp. 900-902
DOI: 10.1126/science.138.3543.900


The C13:C12 ratios of the carbonate comprising "normal," "faunal," and "mixed" coal balls are consistent with the hypothesis that calcareous coal balls contain varying proportions of two kinds of carbonate: (i) precipitated carbonate formed in the coal swamp and characteristically deficient in C13, and (ii) extraneous detrital material, mainly fossil fragments relatively enriched in C13.