Groundwater: Flow Toward an Effluent Stream

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Science  21 Jun 1963:
Vol. 140, Issue 3573, pp. 1318-1320
DOI: 10.1126/science.140.3573.1318


Hydrodynamic, topographic, and geologic factors control flow of groundwater toward an effluent stream. Features of such flow are illustrated by a hydraulic model that simulates the stream and surrounding consolidated rocks. Colored ink in the flow system marks progress toward the stream. Visual analysis shows that groundwater moves into the effluent stream along curvilineal flow lines. The total head of groundwater beneath the stream increases with depth.