Reports

Conditioned "Anxiety" and Punishment Effects on Operant Behavior of Goldfish (Carassius auratus)

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Science  26 Jul 1963:
Vol. 141, Issue 3578, pp. 351-353
DOI: 10.1126/science.141.3578.351

Abstract

Hungry goldfish learned to press a lever for worms on a 2-minute variable-interval schedule of reinforcement. Lever pressing was suppressed in the presence of a flashing light by (i) pairing the light with a brief electric shock ("anxiety") and (ii) punishing the lever-pressing behavior with electric shocks.

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