The (±) Reference: Accuracy of Estimated Mean Components in Average Response Studies

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Science  07 Jul 1967:
Vol. 157, Issue 3784, pp. 92-94
DOI: 10.1126/science.157.3784.92


The (±) reference is defined as the result of alternate addition and subtraction and division by N (the number of sample functions). Under suitable conditions both the (±) reference and the variable component (noise) of the usual average tend to be derived from the same Gaussian process, and the former can be used as a measure of the latter. This property is most easily applied when the noise is derived from a stationary process. Application of the (±) reference and the average of the square of the voltage in studies of evoked response is discussed.