Creative Tensions in the Research and Development Climate

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Science  14 Jul 1967:
Vol. 157, Issue 3785, pp. 160-165
DOI: 10.1126/science.157.3785.160


As Andrews and I examined the conditions under which scientists and engineers did effective work, we observed a number of apparent paradoxes. Achievement was high under conditions that seemed inconsistent, including on the one hand sources of stability or confidence (what I have called "security") and on the other hand sources of disruption or intellectual conflict (that is, "challenge"). It appears that, if both are present, the creative tension between them can promote technical achievement.