Hypertrophy of the rat soleus muscle was induced by tenotomy of the synergistic muscles. Four days after the operation, the weight of the muscle had increased by 30 percent. The hypertrophied muscle had an increased concentration of DNA and RNA, when compared to the contralateral control soleus. Although the amount of myofibrillar protein increased during the 4-day period, the concentration of this component decreased. Microsomes prepared from hypertrophied muscle had an increased RNA concentration. The combined microsomes and pH-5 enzyme from hypertrophied muscle supported a faster rate of protein synthesis in vitro than the same system prepared from an equal weight of contralateral muscle which was used as a control.