Atmosphere and Ionosphere of Venus from the Mariner V S-Band Radio Occultation Measurement

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Science  29 Dec 1967:
Vol. 158, Issue 3809, pp. 1683-1688
DOI: 10.1126/science.158.3809.1683


Measurements of the frequency, phase, and amplitude of the S-band radio signal of Mariner V as it passed behind Venus were used to obtain the effects of refraction in its atmosphere and ionosphere. Profiles of refractivity, temperature, pressure, and density in the neutral atmosphere, as well as electron density in the daytime ionosphere, are presented. A constant scale height was observed above the tropopause, and the temperature increased with an approximately linear lapse rate below the tropopause to the level at which signal was lost, presumably because heavy defocusing attenuation occurred as critical refraction was approached. An ionosphere having at least two maxima was observed at only 85 kilometers above the tropopause.