The rat hypothalamus contains thermally insensitive, normally sensisitive, and highly thermosensitive cells. The responses of thermosensitive neurons to microelectrophoretically applied acetylcholine, norepinephrine, and 5-hydroxy-tryptamine were the same in both rats and cats. The firing rate of warm-sensitive interneurons was accelerated by acetylcholine and inhibited by norepinephrine. The firing rate of cool-sensitive interneurons was accelerated by norepinephrine and, in one case, was inhibited by 5-hydroxytryptamine. Thermodetector cells were relatively insensitive to these amines, but were sensitive to current flow. These results from the rat, but not from the cat, agree with the data for thermoregulatory responses following microinjection of these amines into the hypothalamus.