Reports

Morphine Tolerance and Dependence Induced by Intraventricular Injecfion

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Science  01 Oct 1971:
Vol. 174, Issue 4004, pp. 74-76
DOI: 10.1126/science.174.4004.74

Abstract

Injection of small quantities of morphine into the cerebral ventricular system of awake, relatively unrestrained, monkeys depressed or abolished operant food-reinforced lever pressing. After repeated injections progressively higher doses of morphine were needed to depress responding. Also, dependence could be demonstrated in these animals by precipitating specific abstinence signs with an antagonist.