Visual Free Recall

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Science  01 Jun 1973:
Vol. 180, Issue 4089, pp. 980-982
DOI: 10.1126/science.180.4089.980


Lists of complex pictures, not easily encoded verbally, were presented to subjects who recalled them by writing brief descriptions. The lists were 10, 20, and 40 pictures in length. Recall failed to show the primacy and recency effects seen with verbal materials, but was lower for pictures in longer lists. This argues for serial-position effects based in short-term memory and independent list-length effects arising during retrieval from long-term memory.