Reports

Seasonal Changes in the Learning and Activity Patterns of Goldfish

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Science  10 Aug 1973:
Vol. 181, Issue 4099, pp. 572-574
DOI: 10.1126/science.181.4099.572

Abstract

Goldfish exhibit cyclic changes with an annual rhythm in their learning and activity patterns. Maximum learning ability and active behavior occurred during the months of January, February, and March. Poor learning was obtained in the summer months, after the onset of the spawning season. The results indicate that the annual periodic changes of the hormonal levels which govern spawning may also influence learning and activity patterns.