Pavlovian Conditioning with Heat Reinforcement Produces Stimulus-Directed Pecking in Chicks

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Science  31 Aug 1973:
Vol. 181, Issue 4102, pp. 875-877
DOI: 10.1126/science.181.4102.875


In a cooled chamber, chicks approached and pecked a small disk whose illumination preceded heat lamp activation, even when pecks prevented heat lamp onset. These behaviors did not occur when the disk and heat stimuli were randomly presented. Approach and contact of conditioned stimuli may develop even though these behaviors are not (i) evoked by the reinforcing stimulus, (ii) necessary for reinforcer reception, or (iii) ever followed by the reinforcer.