Heavy cosmic-ray exposure of Apollo astronauts

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Science  24 Jan 1975:
Vol. 187, Issue 4173, pp. 263-265
DOI: 10.1126/science.187.4173.263


A comprehensive study of the heavy-particle cosmic-ray exposure received by the individual astronauts during the nine lunar Apollo missions reveals a significant variation in the exposure as a function of shielding and the phase of the solar cycle. The data are useful in planning for future long-range missions and in estimating the expected biological damage.