Jupiter's Magnetic Field. Magnetosphere, and Interaction with the Solar Wind: Pioneer 11

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Science  02 May 1975:
Vol. 188, Issue 4187, pp. 451-455
DOI: 10.1126/science.188.4187.451


The Pioneer 11 vector helium magnetometer provided precise, contititious measurements of the magnetic fields in interplanetary space, inside Jupiter's magnetosphere, and in the near vicinity of Jupiter. As with the Pioneer 10 data, evidence was seen of the dynanmic interaction of Jupiter with the solar wind which leads to a variety of phenomena (bow shock, upstream waves, nonlinear magnetosheath impulses) and to changes in the dimension of the dayside magnetosphere by as much as a factor of 2. The magnetosphere clearly appears to be blunt, not disk-shaped, with a well-defined outer boundary. In the outer magnetosphere, the magnetic field is irregular but exhibits a persistent southward component indicative of a closed magnetosphere. The data contain the first clear evidence in the dayside magnetosphere of the current sheet, apparently associated with centrifugal forces, that was a donminatnt feature of the outbound Pionieer 10 data. A modest westward spiraling of the field was again evident inbound but not outbound at higher latitudes and nearer the Sun-Jupiter direction. Measurements near periapsis, which were nearer the planet and provide better latitude and longitude coverage than Pioneer 10, have revealed a 5 percent discrepancy with the Pioneer 10 offset dipole mnodel (D2). A revised offset dipole (6-parameter fit) is presented as well as the results of a spherical harmonic analysis (23 parameters) consisting of an interior dipole, quadrupole, and octopole and an external dipole and quadrupole. The dipole moment and the composite field appear moderately larger than inferred from Pioneer 10. Maximum surface fields of 14 and 11 gauss in the northern and southern hemispheres are inferred. Jupiter's planetary field is found to be slightly more irregular than that of Earth.