Mefloquine hydrochloride, a new 4-quinolinemethanol, was administered as a single oral dose to 47 volunteers infected with malaria. Treatment resulted in rapid clearence of fever and parasitemia. No recrudescence of parasites was observed after treatment of chloroquine-sensitive infections of Plasmodium falciparum. More significantly, in nonimmune persons with chloroquine-resistant infections, 1 gram of mefloquine cured 10 of 12 patients and 1.5 grams cured all 8 patients who received this dose of the drug. The marked activity of a single dose of mefloquine against chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum suggests that this agent may be more useful than currently available drugs are for the treatment of drug-resistant malaria.