Hierarchical Relations Among Female Hanuman Langurs (Primates: Colobinae, Presbytis entellus)

See allHide authors and affiliations

Science  03 Sep 1976:
Vol. 193, Issue 4256, pp. 913-915
DOI: 10.1126/science.193.4256.913


Female hierarchies are stable over short periods but fluctuate from year to year. In general, young females rise in rank over older and often larger female relatives, even though old females remain active in troop defense. This previously undescribed dominance system can be plausibly explained with reference to inclusive fitness theory and the concept of reproductive value.