When human platelets are aggregated by thrombin, material is released that rapidly contracts strips of spirally cut porcine coronary artery. Prevention of the contraction by indomethacin suggested mediation by a prostaglandin. The contraction produced by aggregating platelets was unlike those produced by prostaglandins E2, F2alpha, G2, or H2, but resembled that evoked by thromboxane A2, which is formed by platelets during aggregation.