Reports

Terrestrial locomotion in penguins: it costs more to waddle

Science  11 Feb 1977:
Vol. 195, Issue 4278, pp. 592-594
DOI: 10.1126/science.835018

Abstract

The energetic cost for walking is relatively higher for penguins than for other birds or for quadrupeds of similar body mass. The morphology of penguins seems to represent a compromise between aquatic and terrestrial locomotion wherein both energy economy and speed suffer when the birds move on land.