Comparisons of albumin indicate that the frogs commonly used by North American molecular and developmental biologists under the name of Xenopus muelleri belong to another species, X. borealis. Phylogenetic analysis of the albumin data reveals two major groups of Xenopus species, one containing only X. tropicalis and the other, called the X. laevis grou, containing the remaining species of the genus. The phylogenetic tree, in conjunction with evidence from chromosomes and DNA content, leads to the hypothesis that total genome duplication occurred in the common ancestor of the X. laevis group.