Antibodies to rat prolactin were used in immunohistochemical studies of the hypothalamus and preoptic area of the rat. Evidence was obtained that a protein immunochemically related to prolactin was stored in networks of nerve terminals of many hypothalamic areas such as the arcuate nucleus, the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, and periventricular regions of the hypothalamus and preoptic area. The neuronal storage of a prolactin-like protein in the hypothalamus was unaffected by hypophysectomy.