Ultrasound emission in infant rats as an indicant of arousal during appetitive learning and extinction

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Science  19 Aug 1977:
Vol. 197, Issue 4305, pp. 786-788
DOI: 10.1126/science.560717


Infant rats rewarded for crawling by being allowed to suckle on the dry nipple of an anesthetized dam showed a decreasing rate of ultrasound production during acquisition and an increasing rate during extinction. These results suggest that infant rats can be stressed and are aroused as a result of successive nonrewards just as adult rats are. In addition, these results do not support the hypothesis that infant rats lack inhibitory mechanisms related to poorly developed neural centers.