There are three distinct enolase isoenzymes in brain; neuron-specific enolase (NSE), formerly referred to as neuron-specific protein, which is specifically localized in neurons, a nonneuronal enolase (NNE), and a third hybrid form. Light microscopy with immunocytochemical techniques has permitted localization of non-neuronal enolase. The NNE is located in glial cells with no staining of endothelial cells or neurons. Thus, NSE and NNE can be used as specific metabolic markers for neurons and glial cells, respectively.