Thymus-derived lymphocytes (T cells) show exquisite specificity in recognition of antigens, but the nature of the cell surface receptor is controversial. Although antigen recognition mediated by immunoglobulin variable (V) regions remains the minimal hypothesis, it has been extremely difficult to definitely establish the presence of immunoglobulins on these cells. Chicken antibodies, produced against the (Fab')2fragment of mouse immunoglobulin G (IgG) and purified by binding to and elution from IgG-Sepharose 4B, bind to an endogenously synthesized surface component of guinea pig T cells. The binding occurred via a cross-reaction with murine k chain and a heavy chain determinant localized in the Fd region, and was visualized by immunofluorescence and immunoelectronmicroscopy using both transmission and scanning techniques. These data provide direct evidence for the presence of a surface component related to immunoglobulin on T lymphocytes.