The behavioral, cognitive, and electrophysiological effect of a single dose of dextroamphetamine (0.5 milligram per kilogram of body weight) or placebo was examined in 14 normal prepubertal boys (mean age, 10 years 11 months) in a double-blind study. When amphetamine was given, the group showed a marked decrease in motor activity and reaction time and improved performance on cognitive tests. The similarity of the response observed in normal children to that reported in children with "hyperactivity" or minimal brain dysfunction casts doubt on pathophysiological models of minimal brain dysfunction which assume that children with this syndrome have a clinically specific or "paradoxical" response to stimulants.

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