Breeding Patterns of Galápagos Penguins as an Indicator of Oceanographic Conditions

Science  30 Jun 1978:
Vol. 200, Issue 4349, pp. 1481-1483
DOI: 10.1126/science.200.4349.1481


Surface water changes associated with El Niño have been known to affect deleteriously top carnivores along coastal South America. Data on the breeding strategies of Galápagos penguins and other seabirds indicate that the biological effects of El Niño extend much farther west. The breeding biology of these seabirds is adapted to frequent changes in productivity which are associated with El Niño.