Immunocompetence in the lowest metazoan phylum: transplantation immunity in sponges

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Science  27 Apr 1979:
Vol. 204, Issue 4391, pp. 420-422
DOI: 10.1126/science.441730

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Isografts of Callyspongia diffusa fuse compatibly, but allografts are invariably incompatible. Extensive polymorphism of cell-surface histocompatibility markers is evident. The histocompatibility barriers range from strong to weak depending on the interclonal combination, but early rejection with conspicous cytotoxic sequelae is typical. Reaction times of first-set, second-set, and third-party grafts indicate highly discriminating transplantation immunity with a specific memory component.