Absolute amounts of cadmium (in milligrams) in the left kidney and concentrations of cadmium (micrograms per gram) in the liver were measured in vivo in 20 healthy adult male volunteers. Organ cadmium levels of smokers were significantly elevated above those of nonsmokers. No relationship was evident between body stores of cadmium (liver and kidney) and cadmium or beta 2-microglobulin in urine or blood. The average total body burden of cadmium in man at age 50 is estimated to be 19.3 milligrams for nonsmokers and 35.5 milligrams for smokers (38.7 pack-year smoking history). Biological half-time for the whole body was, on average, 15.7 years (10- to 33-year range). Dietary absorption was 2.7 micrograms per day. Cigarette smoking resulted in the absorption of 1.9 micrograms per pack.