The microiontophoretic application of thyrotropin-releasing hormone causes a selective reduction in neuronal excitation evoked by L-glutamate but not by acetylcholine in rat cerebral cortex. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone has no influence on the activity of acetylcholinesterase or on choline uptake and release from cerebral synaptosomes. This evidence for a selective interaction between a centrally acting peptide and an excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter may indicate a specific locus of thyrotropin-releasing hormone action at glutamate-activated receptor sites.