Phenylethylamine (PEA) is an endogenous amine that is structurally and pharmacologically related to amphetamine. Urinary PEA excretion is significantly higher in paranoid chronic schizophrenics than in nonparanoid chronic schizophrenics and normal controls. Diet, hospitalization, and medication do not account for differences in PEA concentrations. These findings offer some indication that PEA may be an endogenous amphetamine.