The testicular feminized rat: a naturally occurring model of androgen independent brain masculinization

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Science  18 Jul 1980:
Vol. 209, Issue 4454, pp. 418-420
DOI: 10.1126/science.7384816

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Although genotypically male (XY), the testicular feminized rat develops as an anatomic female because of an inherited deficiency in intracellular androgen receptors that prevents androgen imprinting of sexual primordia. However, the ability of testicular feminized rats to exhibit male-like sexual behavior and little feminine sexual behavior suggests that the brain can be masculinized without androgens.