Articles

Minerals formed by organisms

Science  13 Mar 1981:
Vol. 211, Issue 4487, pp. 1126-1131
DOI: 10.1126/science.7008198

Abstract

Organisms are capable of forming a diverse array of minerals, some of which cannot be formed inorganically in the biosphere. The initial precipitates may differ from the form in which they are finally stabilized, or during development of the organism one mineral may substitute for another. Biogenic minerals commonly have attributes which distinguish them from their inorganic counterparts. They fulfill important biological functions. They have been formed in ever-increasing amounts during the last 600 million years and have radically altered the character of the biosphere.

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