Todorokites: A New Family of Naturally Occurring Manganese Oxides

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Science  29 May 1981:
Vol. 212, Issue 4498, pp. 1024-1027
DOI: 10.1126/science.212.4498.1024


Todorokites are found in numerous terrestrial deposits and are important copper- and nickel-bearing materials in manganese nodules. Their structures are highly disordered, not well known, and controversial. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals that terrestrial todorokites consist of tunnel structures of previously unreported dimensions and that these tunnel structures are intergrown coherently on a unit cell scale. Many types and degrees of disorder are evident in the high-resolution images. These newly discovered structures indicate a need for a revised nomenclature of tunnel manganese oxides, and such a system is suggested.