Rats were trained to walk on a treadmill to avoid foot shock. The animals developed tolerance for ethanol if given subsequent practice while ethanol intoxicated. Rats given equivalent doses of ethanol after practice did not develop tolerance, nor did saline-treated controls. These results challenge the hypothesis that mere repeated doses of ethanol are sufficient to induce tolerance. It seems that tolerance does not develop unless the response used to measure tolerance is performed while the subject is intoxicated.