Hippocampi of seizure-sensitive and seizure-resistant Mongolian gerbils were examined in search of structural correlates of seizure behavior. In animals with well-established seizure histories, differences were found in both presynaptic and postsynaptic structures. Seizing animals had less dense dendritic spines, a greater proportion of mossy tuft area devoted to presynaptic vesicles, and a smaller proportion devoted to spines. The possible relationship of these findings to epilepsy is discussed.