A monoclonal antibody (immunoglobulin G1) has been produced that reacts against myelin basic protein present in or extracted from the brains of many mammals-with certain important exceptions. Because of known species differences in amino acid sequences of basic protein and of certain peptide fragments, the binding site for this particular antibody appeared likely to include residues 130 to 137. Confirmation of this hypothesis was obtained by amino acid composition of the major immunoreactive peptides produced by thermolysin digestion of human basic protein and isolated by high-performance liquid chromatography.