Articles

Women scientists and engineers: trends in participation

Science  18 Dec 1981:
Vol. 214, Issue 4527, pp. 1313-1321
DOI: 10.1126/science.7313688

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Abstract

Women have made tremendous strides in educational attainment in science and engineering over the past decade, increasing their proportion of doctorate awards in these fields from 7 percent in 1965 to 23 percent in 1980. But they still have higher unemployment rates and lower salaries than men in all fields of science and engineering, at all degree levels, and at all levels of experience; and the disparities between men and women widen with higher degree levels and with years of experience. Graduate enrollments indicate continuing increases over at least the next several years in degree awards to women, but their access to equal employment and advancement opportunities is not assured.

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