The concentrations of oxytocin, arginine vasopressin, and estrogen stimulated neurophysin in cerebrospinal fluid of monkeys showed a daily fluctuation with high concentrations occurring during the light period. The patterns of oxytocin and estrogen-stimulated neurophysin in the cerebrospinal fluid were not observed in the plasma nor were they altered after the administration of a dose of estradiol that increased concentrations of estrogen-stimulated neurophysin in plasma. The disassociation between these cerebrospinal fluid and plasma patterns and values suggests that the secretory activity of neurons that release estrogen-stimulated neurophysin and oxytocin into the cerebrospinal fluid is controlled by mechanisms different from those that control their release into the plasma.