Tumor ascites fluids from guinea pigs, hamsters, and mice contain activity that rapidly increases microvascular permeability. Similar activity is also secreted by these tumor cells and a variety of other tumor cell lines in vitro. The permeability-increasing activity purified from either the culture medium or ascites fluid of one tumor, the guinea pig line 10 hepatocarcinoma, is a 34,000- to 42,000-dalton protein distinct from other known permeability factors.