The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), which has recently occurred at increasing rates in homosexual men, intravenous drug users, and others, is characterized by the development of Kaposi's sarcoma and several opportunistic infections including pneumonia caused by Pneumocystis carinii. Serum samples from patients with AIDS and from matched and unmatched control subjects were examined for the presence of antibodies to cell membrane antigens associated with human T-cell leukemia virus. Nineteen of 75 of the AIDS patients had antibodies directed to surface antigens of Hut 102, a reference T lymphoid cell line infected with leukemia virus, as did two of the 336 control subjects.