Treatment of spleen cells derived from adult thymectomized mice with thymosin fraction 5 resulted in a rapid and dose-dependent stimulation of the release of immunoreactive prostaglandin E2. The release of prostaglandin E2 was associated with induction of theta antigen and was totally inhibited by indomethacin. In contrast, prostaglandin E2 release from spleen cells from intact donors was inhibited by treatment with fraction 5. The data support the concept that prostaglandin E2 mediates the effects of thymosin fraction 5 on lymphocytes.