The Quantized Hall Effect

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Science  17 Jun 1983:
Vol. 220, Issue 4603, pp. 1241-1246
DOI: 10.1126/science.220.4603.1241


Quantization of the Hall effect is one of the most surprising discoveries in recent experimental solid-state research. At low temperatures and high magnetic fields the ratio of the Hall voltage to the electric current in a two-dimensional system is quantized in units of h/e2, where h is Planck's constant and e is the electronic charge. Concomitantly, the electrical resistance of the specimen drops to values far below the resistances of the best normal metals.