Fetal guinea pig cells were transformed by treatment with four different chemical carcinogens including nitroso compounds and polycyclic hydrocarbons. As a consequence of this treatment, oncogenes capable of transforming NIH/3T3 cells became activated in each of five independently established clonal guinea pig cell lines. Molecular characterization of representative NIH/3T3 transformants revealed that the same oncogene was present in each of the cell lines tested. Moreover, detection of this transforming gene paralleled the acquisition of tumorigenic properties by these neoplastic cells.