A novel type D retrovirus was isolated by cocultivation of explants of fibromatous tissue from a rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) with immunodeficiency and retroperitoneal fibromatosis. This type D virus, isolated from a macaque with simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (SAIDS-D/Washington), is exogenous and is partially related to the Mason-Pfizer and the langur monkey type D viruses. The SAiDS-D virus can be distinguished from all other primate retroviruses by antigenicity and molecular hybridization. Nucleic acid hybridization studies reveal that the origin of the SAIDS-D isolate may reside in Old World monkey (subfamily Colobinae) cellular DNA.