Crude extracts of rat atria reduced the basal amount of aldosterone released from rat zona glomerulosa cells and partially inhibited aldosterone stimulation by adrenocorticotropic hormone and angiotensin II. The destruction of this activity by trypsin suggests that the active factor is a peptide, possibly atrial natriuretic factor. These data suggest that atrial natriuretic factor affects sodium excretion by the kidneys both directly and through the inhibition of aldosterone production.